Cone Zone: Week Of July 8, 2019

first_imgCOUNTY News:The Public Works/Traffic Division provides the latest updates on the following projects:Manhole Repairs – Ponderosa Estates in Los Alamos:Crews continue adjusting manholes in Ponderosa Estates along Aspen Drive, Sumac Lane and Maple Drive. Work is scheduled to continue through the end of July. The concrete being used is a high strength mix and requires a cure time; therefore, residents are urged to avoid driving over these manholes for the first few days after they are poured. Traffic control will be set up daily in several locations along the project route and residents are urged to use caution when driving through and walking near these work zones. Work hours are 80 a.m. to 5 p.m. Monday through Friday.Road Striping in White Rock:Traffic and Streets Division crews are wrapping up striping local roadways in White Rock to replace faded markings for traffic safety. No traffic delays. Please slow down and use caution when crews are working in these areas.Questions on the above projects? Email lacpw@lacnm.us, or call 505.662.8150.Other road construction projects:N.M. 502 Roundabout and Road Reconstruction (NMDOT project) No change to traffic pattern for last week. The contractor continues working on common trench for utilities 9 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. Monday through Friday. Expect delays. The speed limit is reduced to 25 mph. N.M. 502 (Trinity Drive) east-bound traffic is being detoured to 4th Street and Central Avenue. After a full stop, motorists should turn right (east) and travel through the construction zone to continue east-bound out of Los Alamos on N.M. 502. West-bound N.M. 502 traffic entering Los Alamos and approaching the roundabout construction zone is being detoured onto Central Avenue; continue west to Knecht Street (or alternatively, continue to the traffic light at 15th Street) then turn left to return to Trinity Drive. There is only one lane of traffic in each direction on Central Avenue. Please slow down, use caution and expect delays in this area, especially during peak commute times.Traffic advisories from NMDOT are available on www.nmroads.com and motorists are asked to check the site for updates on this project as it proceeds.Manhattan Loop (Near the N.M. 502 Roundabout Project) – Cable Repairs (Cablecom project):Beginning Monday, Cablecom will be repairing cable behind the sidewalk requiring a full sidewalk closure at 48 Manhattan loop; work continues through Wednesday at the intersection of Canyon and Manhattan loop. Because of the proximity to the N. M 502 project, pedestrians and motorists are urged to use extra caution in this already congested work zone.TA-21 Clean Up Project – DP Road (N3B project):No change in truck traffic on DP Road from last week’s report. Clean-up work on the LANL TA-21 Site at the far eastern end of DP Road continues. Large trucks carrying away demolition debris containers will be exiting DP Road at an average of approximately three trucks per day. Motorists are asked to be alert for trucks exiting; use caution when entering or exiting DP Road, as this area is near the NM502 Road Reconstruction project.Utility/Road Construction Longview Drive in White Rock (Dig It Excavating project):A portion of Longview Drive will be closed for utility work requiring an asphalt cut, between 117 Longview to 123 Longview, beginning Monday and continuing through Friday. Detour signs will be posted.last_img read more

Read More →

Ledoux: Exploring Mysteries Of Living … Behavior And Contingencies

first_imgBy STEPHEN F. LEDOUXA Los Alamos member ofThe International Behaviorology InstituteSince the causes of behavior are cast in terms of “contingencies,” the time has come to make some sense of the term “contingency.”This term stands in generically for the range of “causes” of behavior the way other terms cannot, such as “stars” in astrology, or “selves” in psychology.In a contingency, as an if-then relationship, if one variable happens, then the other variable happens. Each contingent relationship involves a dependency between variables. One variable “causes” behavior while the other variable is the behavior, the effect of the cause.A dependency exists between the effect and the cause. The occurrence of the effect depends on the occurrence of the cause. While gradually getting used to the term “contingency” substituting “dependency” for it sometimes helps.Of course, science generally avoids words like “cause” and “effect” because they come with various bits of philosophical baggage. We can, however, still employ them to get things started. But science enhances accuracy by using the terms “independent variable” and “dependent variable” with the dependent variable occurring as a function of the independent variable.For example, some electric stoves have 10 buttons for each element, with each button tied to a different amount of electrical energy passing through and thereby heating the element. These buttons therefore constitute the values of the heat independent variable, and we manipulate the heat when we push different buttons. The word “manipulation” gets some bad press, sometimes deserved, but here in science it has a quite neutral meaning.By manipulating the heat, we control the speed at which the water in our teapot boils. That speed can be a dependent variable, but the button pushing is the behavior dependent variable of our concern. Contingencies involving guests getting impatient for tea compel pushing the button that provides the most energy to the stove element, making the water heat quickly. In contingency terms, the fastest water heating is contingent on (that is, “depends on”) pushing the highest energy button, which is contingent on (that is, “depends on”) guests getting noisy for tea.Alternatively, conditions might be such that we cannot use the hot water for several minutes anyway. Perhaps we are preparing the crumpets or scones that accompany the tea. Then, pushing a button that provides less energy to the stove element makes the water heat more slowly.As usual, that example is more complex in a couple of ways. The whole situation actually intertwines both physical variables (amount of energy and speed of water heating) and behavioral variables (conditions controlling pushing one button rather than a different button, with appropriate results). All this anticipates our initial coverage of behavior independent variables and dependent variables shortly.Also, we actually only observe the repeatable sequence of these events in time, that is, one seems always to follow the other (“seems,” because observing every possible repetition—past, present, and future—is not possible). Enough such repetitions breed a certain confidence that the sequences are not occurring by coincidence.We may then begin using the overused (and possibly misused) term “cause” to describe the sequence, saying that the occurrence of a certain independent variable causes the occurrence of a certain dependent variable. We may even reach the point where the relationship is so well established, with such a high confidence level, that we begin calling it a “law” (like gravity).We find different scientific disciplines connecting with different kinds of dependent variables as their particular subject matter. Generally, dependent variables involving energy constitute the basic subject matter of physics, while chemistry deals with matter as its dependent–variable subject matter. And dependent variables involving life forms constitute the basic subject matter of biology, while behaviorology deals with life functions, behavior, as its dependent–variable subject matter.Behaviorology is interested in the functional relations that pertain to behavior, especially human behavior. With behavior in general, and changes in behavior in particular, as our dependent variables, consider just a general view of the independent variables that control behavior.Note that the word “control,” with respect to behavior, does not refer to “coercion,” something that pre–scientific cultural notions make us suspect. Scientifically, “control” merely refers to behavior being a function of independent variables.An easy, although only temporarily helpful, initial view of behavior and its “causes” takes a very simplified form that we call the “ABCs of behaviorology.” This is actually a double contingency. Here the “A” stands for “antecedent controls,” while the “B” stands for behaviors, and the “C” stands for consequent controls.” Expanding a little, this formula reads “antecedent events functionally control behaviors, while behaviors functionally control consequences.”As contingencies, that formula says that the behavior is contingent on the antecedents and the consequences are contingent on the behavior. Later, as the complexity increases, we will come to understand that the effectiveness of the antecedents is actually contingent on the consequences.That formula indicates the most common kinds of variables surrounding behavior. A variety of stimulus variables comprise the antecedents of behavior. A variety of considerations surround behavior responses. And a variety of stimulus variables comprise the consequences, or “postcedents,” of behavior (of which “consequences” are only one type).Stimuli occur in the environment, some of which exists inside the skin, because the laws of the universe affect what is inside the skin as much as they affect what is outside the skin. Thus, stimuli are the vast range of real events in the internal and external behavior–controlling environments.More specifically stimuli are various kinds, qualities, and intensities of energy changes at nervous–system receptor cells. They produce structural changes in the nervous system that result in the occurrence of behavior (or affect behavior in some other way) and we describe this interaction as the neural mediation of behavior under those environmental controls. Note that nerves mediate behavior only after stimulation occurs. Nerves do not initiate behavior. This all occurs entirely naturally.Internal and external environmental stimulus energies, some that evoke behavior and others that consequate behavior, work by affecting the brain and nervous system, which thus neither originate nor initiate the occurrence of behavior. Instead, brains and nervous systems only mediate behavior as part of the physiology that is ever present and operating when behavior occurs. Topics in later columns will fill in some details.Essentially then, physiology is the locus at which internal and external environmental independent variables and behavioral dependent variables interact. Similarly, the processes and outcomes that the terms in our behavior formula imply need no participation from spontaneously acting or mystical inner agents.For a more fun to read, general–audience primer on the topics of these columns, one that is less comprehensive but also less technical than my 2014 textbook, see my 2017 book, What Causes Human Behavior—Stars, Selves, or Contingencies? that BehaveTech Publishing, in Ottawa, Canada, published. You can find it fully described on the books page of www.behaviorology.org.Writing these columns occurs separately from membership in The International Behaviorology Institute (TIBI, at www.behaviorology.org where you can always find more information and resources). The author is not speaking for TIBI, and the author and TIBI need not be in agreement. TIBI welcomes feedback, members, and donations (501.c.3). Write the author through this paper’s editor. Find previously published columns on this paper’s website. This is column 3 of 72. Copyright © 2019 by Stephen F. Ledouxlast_img read more

Read More →

The big insurance switch-off

first_imgWould you like to read more?Register for free to finish this article.Sign up now for the following benefits:Four FREE articles of your choice per monthBreaking news, comment and analysis from industry experts as it happensChoose from our portfolio of email newsletters To access this article REGISTER NOWWould you like print copies, app and digital replica access too? SUBSCRIBE for as little as £5 per week.last_img

Read More →

Fermilab advances with liquid argon technology

first_imgSubscribe Get instant access to must-read content today!To access hundreds of features, subscribe today! At a time when the world is forced to go digital more than ever before just to stay connected, discover the in-depth content our subscribers receive every month by subscribing to gasworld.Don’t just stay connected, stay at the forefront – join gasworld and become a subscriber to access all of our must-read content online from just $270.last_img

Read More →

Fires on construction sites: A burning question

first_imgStay at the forefront of thought leadership with news and analysis from award-winning journalists. Enjoy company features, CEO interviews, architectural reviews, technical project know-how and the latest innovations.Limited access to building.co.ukBreaking industry news as it happensBreaking, daily and weekly e-newsletters Subscribe to Building today and you will benefit from:Unlimited access to all stories including expert analysis and comment from industry leadersOur league tables, cost models and economics dataOur online archive of over 10,000 articlesBuilding magazine digital editionsBuilding magazine print editionsPrinted/digital supplementsSubscribe now for unlimited access.View our subscription options and join our community Subscribe now for unlimited access Get your free guest access  SIGN UP TODAY To continue enjoying Building.co.uk, sign up for free guest accessExisting subscriber? LOGINlast_img read more

Read More →

Financial boost for Athlone school

first_img 1 of 2 NABEELAH MOHEDEEN A cash donation from the Management College of South Africa (MANCOSA) means more classes at Regina Coeli Primary School now have data projectors and the promise of future involvement at the school could result in a boost for its feeding scheme and library projects.On Friday January 22, Mancosa marketing and recruitment manager Hashim Bobat handed a cheque for R25 000 to Regina Coeli Primary School principal Hilton Alie. The money will be used to buy data projectors.At the handover ceremony, Mr Bobat said his colleague, Lisa Johnson, who was a pupil at Regina Coeli until 1997, had nominated the school. “The school also has a feeding scheme for its pupils, and that is one of the next projects Mancosa would like to become inlvoved with,” he said.“We are even prepared to partner with other institutions in order to make the sponsorship a long-term deal, as the school has many more needs, such as space, recreational facilities, and a school hall, which are things we can respond to,” he said.He said Mancosa planned to get involved in the school’s library project next, by helping to find books to fill the shelves.Explaining why she nominated the school for a hand up, Ms Johnson, who works as office administrator at Mancosa, said: “I didn’t realise how tough it was at the school, how less fortunate our circumstances were at the school, until I moved on to another school in Grade 4. We had broken windows, no toilets on the premises and packed classrooms.“A lot has changed around the school since I attended. The playground seemed so small. When I was here, it was divided – girls one side and boys one side. When I came back today, I got the sense of feeling like a little kid again. I am happy knowing that I made a difference to the school, no matter how small.”Mr Alie was thrilled with the sponsorship, describing it as “a wonderful opportunity created by Mancosa to enhance the learning experience of the children”.Many of the school’s pupils come from poor areas, and Mr Alie said that while he saw the teachers as the most valuable resource for learning, he realised that bringing multimedia into the classroom would enhance the pupils’ learning experince in the 21st century. “We will now work on installing the projectors in the classrooms so that the pupils can benefit from them,” he said.last_img read more

Read More →

Farnworth Tunnel enlargement delayed by poor ground conditions

first_imgUK: ‘Exceptionally poor’ ground conditions have delayed the project to enlarge Farnworth Tunnel to enable electric trains to run between Bolton and Manchester, Network Rail announced on September 4. As a result the completion date has been put back from October 5, ‘possibly until December’.One of the two single-track bores of the 276 m tunnel dating from 1834 is being enlarged to accommodate double-track and 25 kV 50 Hz overhead electrification; the other bore is being used to keep trains running, but will be taken out of use once the project is complete. The bore being enlarged has been filled with 7 500 m3 of foam concrete, which is now being dug out by the UK’s largest tunnel boring machine. Tunnelling started on August 1 and the 9 m diameter TBM was expected to proceed at a rate of 5·6 to 7 m/day. However, instead of the expected firm material, it encountered ‘large swathes’ of sand which poured into the excavated area, limiting progress to 2·8 m/day. The infrastructure manager said it had proved impossible to excavate safely while installing and grouting the lining, and as of September 3, only 45 m had been excavated. Engineers are now pumping resin into the ground to firm it up before boring.‘This delay is intensely frustrating’, said Martin Frobisher, NR Route Managing Director. ‘We first hit an area of running sand on August 14 when our engineers saw it suddenly pouring from the working face. This has slowed progress and created big voids, the largest of which needed filling with around 35 tonnes of grout. Again on August 27, sand poured into the excavated area and our engineers had to remove 100 tonnes of material by hand.‘The nature of civil engineering, especially deep below ground, is that you never fully know the exact ground conditions until you start tunnelling or excavating. Taking soil samples acts as a guide but is never 100% accurate because conditions vary greatly with the amount of water present.’last_img read more

Read More →

Chris Gayle Surpasses 13,000 T20 Runs to Secure Jamaica Tallawahs Win

first_imgGlenn Phillips and Chris Gayle initially gave Tallawahs a smooth start when they put on 48 off 31 balls for the first wicket.Significantly Gayle, six days shy of his 40th birthday, became the first batsman to pass 13 000 T20 runs in his 389th appearance when he smashed off-spinner Nurse for the second of two sixes in the second over.Phillips, meanwhile, counted four fours and a six off 15 balls before becoming the first casualty, caught in the deep off Holder (2-21) in the sixth over and Gayle followed in the same over, also caught down the ground after being dropped off the previous delivery by Hayden Walsh running in from square leg.When Walsh (2-32) removed both Worker (2) and Dwayne Smith (0) in successive deliveries in the ninth over to leave the innings on 68 for four, Tridents were back in the contest but Walton produced a mature knock to steer Tallawahs to victory.He struck a four and reached his second half-century of the campaign with the last of his five sixes – a solid blow over long-on off medium-pacer Carter which took the hosts past their target.Crucially, he posted 45 for the fifth wicket with Glenn who blasted a four and three sixes in a 12-ball knock.When Glenn and Lewis (2) fell in successive overs to leave Tallawahs on 116 for six in the 14th, Walton kept his nerve to foster a 29-run, unbroken seventh-wicket stand with Derval Green (9 not out) and see off the Tridents challenge.Tallawahs still lie bottom of the standings on two points while Tridents are just above them in fifth, also on two points, but with a superior net run rate. KINGSTON, Jamaica, CMC – Veteran opener Chris Gayle surpassed 13,000 Twenty20 runs as Jamaica Tallawahs broke a four-game losing skid with a four-wicket victory over Barbados Tridents in the Caribbean Premier League on Sunday.Playing in steamy conditions following a 1 pm (2 pm Eastern Caribbean time) start at Sabina Park, Tallawahs stifled the Tridents with spin, restricting them to 140 for nine off their allotted 20 overs.Ashley Nurse, batting at number seven, top-scored with an aggressive 18-ball 37 while South African left-hander JP Duminy struggled for fluency in his 31 which required 35 deliveries.They were the only two to pass 20 as left-arm spinner Zahir Khan weaved a web around the Tridents batsmen to end with three for 20 from his four overs.New Zealander George Worker, who shared the new ball with fellow left-arm spinner Chris Lamont, finished with two for 16 while off-spinner Ramaal Lewis picked up two for 23.In reply, Tallawahs spoiled a strong start after suffering a mini-collapse but recovered in time to reach their target with nine deliveries left.last_img read more

Read More →

Chinese delegation pays visit to CCTV Africa’s Nairobi newsroom

first_imgA delegation from the Publicity department of the Chinese Communist Party’s central committee paid a visit to CCTV Africa’s Headquarters in Nairobi on Friday.A workshop was then held between the delegation and the heads of four major Chinese media houses in Nairobi, to discuss how to improve their coverage in Africa.In recent years, as China-Africa relations get closer, there has been a growing presence of Chinese media on the continent.Kenya’s capital Nairobi alone is home to four major Chinese media houses.Together they have played a big role in bridging understanding between Chinese and Africans.Get more here;last_img

Read More →